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The words of Paul in 1 Tim 2:12 have been used for centuries to bar women from leadership positions in the Church. However, Catherine Clark Kroeger has done a careful analysis of this verse, and makes a compelling case that it was never intended to be understood as a prohibition against women in church leadership, but rather, was an exhortation to shut down a heretical teaching spreading among some of the women in the church at Ephesus. This website takes the content of Clark Kroeger’s 250-page book I Suffer Not a Woman: Rethinking 1 Timothy 2:11-15 in Light of Ancient Evidence (Baker, 1992), and condenses it down into the seven pages listed below. If you find this material helpful, please share it on your social network.

Part ONE: Elimination of Heretical Teaching as Major Theme of 1 Timothy

Part TWO: Heretical Teaching Rooted in Gnostic Beliefs of Surrounding Culture

Part THREE: Clues in 1 Tim 2:1-11 that Paul has Gnostic Beliefs in Mind

Part FOUR: “To Teach” in Verse 12 Not Referring to “Teaching Men”

Part FIVE: Greek Verb authentein Not to be Translated “Have Authority Over”

Part SIX: Gnostic Beliefs Related to Eve

Part SEVEN: Summary

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